Vietnamese Ngoc Linh ginseng.
History of precious ginseng
Panax vietnamensis , Panax vietnamnensis , Panax L., Araliaceae , is a herb that grows up to 1m high in many years, usually growing in clumps of forest canopy. In the beginning, it was only seen as a kind of wild or “hidden cucumber”, but only the village of the ethnic group used to treat people suffering serious illness or drug use. Strength, anti-fatigue when going to the forest for a long time.
In 1973, the Survey of Medicinal Materials of District 5 by Dao Kim Long and Nguyen Chau Giang Pharmacists discovered a species of Panax growing in the Ngoc Linh mountain range at 1500-2000m. The two provinces of Kon Tum – Quang Nam. The research team relied on rhizomes and named them Panax articulatus .
Starting in 1974, the Ginseng was called K5 ginseng to mark the first historical discovery in interregional region 5. Later, Ha Thuy with Soviet scientist AG Ruski based on full documentation. to determine exactly this is a new species of ginseng in the world first encountered in Vietnam and has renamed Vietnam ginseng – Panax vietnamnensis Ha et Grushv. However, the name Ngoc Linh ginseng has more specific meaning. Up to that time, Ngoc Linh ginseng became the 20th ginseng discovered in the world.
Ngoc Linh Mountain – where Ngoc Linh ginseng is found
Why is Ngoc Linh ginseng classified as the best ginseng in the world?
There are two reasons why Ngoc Linh ginseng becomes one of the world’s top pharmaceuticals.
First, the saponin composition is superior to other ginseng
To evaluate the value and quality of ginseng, people often rely on the content and composition of Saponin contained in it. That is to say, the value and quality of a ginseng will be proportional to the content and the amount of Saponin it has. For Sâm Ngọc Linh, Saponin content is considered the highest, higher than both ginseng Korea and ginseng USA on both indicators. More than 50 PhD theses have proven that.
Based on modern structural research methods, especially the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, mass spectrometry, scientists have identified the ground (stalks and roots) of Ngoc Linh Ginseng containing up to 52 saponins, including 26 of the most commonly found chemical compounds found in Korean ginseng, ginseng, Korean ginseng, and 26 new never-before-published compounds in ginseng. In particular, Sâm Ngọc Linh contains a very high content of dammaran saponins containing ocotillol, Majonosid – R 1 and R 2 , in which M – R 2up to 50% of the total saponin content, 42 times higher than that of the compound in Japanese ginseng. The presence of 26 new dammarange saponins and the high concentration of majonoside R2 contributed to the formation of some new pharmacological effects of Ginseng. Ground components such as the leaves and stalks of Sam Ngoc Linh also contain 19 types of Saponin group Damaran, including 8 saponins have a new structure.
In addition to the main ingredient Saponin, Sam Ngoc Linh also contains 17 amino acids, 20 kinds of minerals, essential oils (0.1%) and 17 kinds of fatty acids (0.53%), the most important of which is acid Linolenic and linoleic are compounds that have anti-aging effects.
Second: There are specific pharmacological effects outside of their Ginseng in general
The effect of Sâm Ngọc Linh is focused research from 1978 on both experimental and clinical. The results show that, in addition to the typical uses of Ginseng, Sâm Ngọc Linh also has specific pharmacological effects such as anxiety, antidepressant, antiseptic, antibacterial …. Below is a summary of research results on the effect and mechanism of action of Ngoc Linh ginseng:
Results of experimental studies on pharmacological effects
– Central nervous system stimulant: Depending on the dosage used, at doses of 10 – 100mg / kg, Ngoc Linh Ginseng stimulates the central nervous system, regulates brain activity when disordered. Reflect, increase the natural activity, while in the dose of 0.5 – 2g / kg showing the effect of central nervous system.
– Strengthening effect: It is expressed in very small doses (5 – 100mg / kg) according to the mechanism of action similar to Ginseng, ie increase the use of high energy lipid substrate and limited use hydratcarbon source.
– Reducing the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets is reduced due to irradiation faster than the unpasteurized lot.
– Sexual enhancement in both men and women: Expressed clearly in cases of genital depression through stimulation of the activity of the gland to the brain.
– Pain-relieving inflammation in abdominal pain models with acetic acid, a model that causes acute or chronic inflammation in the mechanism of stimulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis.
– Regulate cardiovascular activity, raise blood pressure in cases of blood pressure lowering due to blood loss. In the dose of 50-500 mg / kg, Ngoc Linh ginseng also show the effect of atherosclerosis prevention mechanisms by lowering cholesterol, reducing total lipid and lipoprotein, increasing HDL-cholesterol (transport lipoprotein cholesterol into intracellular.
– Antibacterial effect on Gram (+) bacteria, especially Streptococcus bacteria cause sore throat. Vietnamese ginseng has synergistic effects with some commonly used antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Tetracyclin, Bactrim and does not affect the benign bacteria in the intestine as antibiotics.
– Anti-stress effects: This effect is very evident in Ngoc Linh ginseng on both physical stress and psychological stress. This effect is mainly due to the activity of M – R 2 compound . Vietnamese Ginseng and M – R2 help restore stress – induced dysfunction, such as loss of sensation, stomach ulcers, decreased immunity … while Korean ginseng has no effect.
– Anti-depressant effect: Vietnamese ginseng has been shown to have anti-depressant effects at a dose of 200 mg / kg and 50 to 100 mg / kg when given for 7 days. Majonoside – R2 (3.1 – 12.5 mg / kg, injection of tissue excretion) has also been shown to have anti-depressant effects on normal subjects.
– Effect of anxiety: Majonoside – R2 (12.5 mg / kg dose) have the effect of disturbing the test animals similar to Diazepam
Other effects have also been demonstrated in experiments: hypoglycaemia at 50 mg / kg; cancer prevention; stimulates the immune system by increasing the phagocytic index of white blood cells, stimulating the activity of the endoplasmic reticulum; protect and regenerate hepatocytes on the hepatic and anti-aging model of stress-induced aging.
Results of clinical evaluation
Studies on clinical pharmacology of ginseng in Vietnam were conducted at the Institute of Aging, Hà Nội (Prof. Pham Khue et al.), 175 Hospital in HCMC (Prof. Do Dinh Luan and associates), HCMC Nursing Institute. Follow up on volunteer patients performed by the Pharmacology Department of Ginseng Center Vietnam from 1982 to 1986.
The results showed that: Patients feel tired, eat well, sleep well, increase body weight, increase vision, mental activity and physical strength are improved. The biochemical index of the body increased as living capacity, Tiffeneau index, A / G ratio, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit. Neonatal and sexual weakness are improved.
Ngoc Linh also shows synergistic effect on antibiotics, raise blood pressure in case of low blood pressure, improve body condition and increase resistance due to overloaded labor and help recover quickly after surgery. stomach. It has a soothing and analgesic effect in sore throats, helping the patient to breathe easily and expectorate the bronchial and lung diseases, preventing recurrence of asthma attacks. Have synergistic effects on blood sugar medications for diabetes.
Thus, Ngoc Linh ginseng proved to be a precious ginseng not only of Vietnam and the world. Therefore, the conservation, development and promotion of Ngoc Linh ginseng cultivation is a very necessary work to serve, public health care more widely and effectively.